The Voice and its Double
The Voice and its Double

"Batteries Vocales”


"Ténu-tenu”

The first recorded poems by François Dufrêne (1930–1982) dated from the 1950s, were announced as “crirythmes” (‘rhythm-cries’) and brought the Lettrist idea of music to an entirely new level (Dufrene marked this rupture by adopting the label ‘Ultralettrisme’). Recorded in one take, with no score to guide him, Dufrene ventured out beyond the alphabet with his voice and tape machine into the brutal wildernesses where Artaud had once wandered. The title of “Batteries Vocales” (1958) proposes a “voice drum” in anticipation of beat-boxing; “Ténu-tenu” (1964) probes the very horizons of vocal potential.